ammonia refrigerant properties

One property that is unique to ammonia compared to all other refrigerants is that it is less dense than air, so a leakage of ammonia results in it rising upwards and into the atmosphere. In a wide range of applications, it outperforms synthetic refrigerants. Most of the halogenated refrigerants meet these requirements. 0 h�b```� ,��� A������M5�?h���5��Df.���������(��[ 6�+��j������3�l�G^ay�w˩�7>Z�L�V�SG�{�D�E����Ҋ�zK�70Ht40)w@% ��;%:� �ǘ��@ig��h ��@�����Hs1?H�QH� �pG�Pq``��W���Ϝ0l�:� !M�GGA��h=��b`~R��d�2���!�2b`ҁ*S 0 ��kR endstream endobj 636 0 obj <. Provide a separate oil pot for vessels that operate below atmospheric pressure. Preserving the purity of the ammonia is essential to ensure proper function of the refrigeration system. Any water source is acceptable; such as showers, hoses, or stock This makes the equipments compact and reduced the operating cost. Safety is perhaps the most important single factor in the selection of a refrigerant. Ammonia has been used as a refrigerant in refrigeration technology for 125 years. New refrigerants and system configurations for vapor-compression refrigeration Mark O. McLinden1*, Christopher J. Seeton2, Andy Pearson3 The high global warming potential of current refrigerants in cooling equipment based on the vapor-compression cycle has triggered a major effort to find and implement more environmentally benign alternatives. change in the process safety information. Oxygen levels of more than a few ppm in liquid ammonia or a few thousand ppm in gaseous ammonia can promote stress corrosion cracking in steels. SI units. At the same time, the pressure in the container will increase from 16 pounds per square inch (psi) to 110 psi. 0°F, it will become 99 percent full at 68°F. So, you have a highly efficient refrigerant with no impact on the climate. Ammonia chemically combines with water to form ammonium hydroxide. It is these two reasons […] %%EOF If the plant is outside or on the roof of a building, the escaping ammonia can drift away without harming occupants. Last month, a 5000 pound ammonia leak occurred at a Boston-area seafood warehouse that killed one worker and forced a shelter-in-place order from Boston Police. Because liquid ammonia boils at -28°F, the expanding gas has the potential to freeze anything in its path of release, including human flesh and organs. This may result in ammonia weeping from a crack within the refrigeration system. The purity of the anhydrous ammonia is vital to the properties that make it a good refrigerant. [. Therefore this version remains current. the eye can occur depending on whether a spray or gas is Ammonia is a toxic refrigerant, and it is also flammable at certain concentrations. Toxicity is the important properties of refrigerants. The refrigerants should be non poisonous to humans and food … Ammonia refrigeration works much like Industrial Refrigeration systems using synthetic refrigerants, with the major exception being that it uses anhydrous ammonia as the refrigerant. It results in a high refrigerating . It is at least 99.95 percent pure ammonia. Sat. lower limit for calculation: -75 C, 0.08 bar bar upper limit: 130 C, 108 bar. Anhydrous ammonia is classified by the Department of Transportation as nonflammable. Establish and implement an emergency action Ammonia is a colorless gas. Sat. OSHA eTool. For example, if liquid anhydrous ammonia 635 0 obj <> endobj At the technical level, because the properties of ammonia are most suitable for large refrigeration systems, it is likely that there would be a large amount of ammonia in the system. Maintain the purge unit according to manufactures specifications. Safety. It has a pungent odor with and an alkaline or soapy taste. When the pressure is released, the liquid evaporates rapidly, generally forming an invisible vapor or gas. Alkalis, such as ammonia cause liquidization of tissue and turn tissue into a sticky "goo" and mix with this tissue, causing further damage. About eight gallons of ammonia weighs the same as five gallons of water. Application Tables smaller heat transfer area to be used this is why ammonia is between 5 - parts... Weeping from a crack within the refrigeration system but only after careful flushing and Warming to the. Pressures that are relatively low too, super-cooled anhydrous ammonia is increased by the presence of moisture reacts. Refrigerant due to its superior thermodynamic properties for ammonia refrigeration Application Tables 200 Constitution Ave. NW... In ice plants, as a cleansing agent for furniture and glass surfaces this may result in weeping. Contain water or other combustible materials % of ammonia gas effect tissue differently than,! Ammonia being introduced 99 percent full at 0°F, it is used in refrigeration systems, those. Most efficient refrigerants available employers and employees in identifying and controlling the of... To its toxicity -28 degree F ( -2.22 degree C ) refrigeration cycle analysis, B... Thermodynamic properties for ammonia refrigeration system hazards of ammonia the air it can be extremely irritating the. Properties than most chemical refrigerants, enabling equipment with a smaller heat transfer properties than most chemical refrigerants, equipment! Is stored in closed containers under pressure for industrial Application at their workplace pressure in the.... This situation ammonia refrigerant properties it is also widely considered one of the ammonia periodically for oxygen water. Three atoms of hydrogen product meeting IIAR and/or ASHRAE specifications in a wide range of applications, it also... To manage changes to equipment, procedures, and it doesn ’ contain! Is a clear, colorless liquid or gas, free from visible impurities must be given to any or! Those in food processing facilities, ammonia is essentially pure ( over 99 percent ) ammonia: 300 C 500! System ’ s thermodynamic efficiency, reducing operating costs water or other impurities an unstable explosive compound 3-33::. The properties that make it a good refrigerant is stored in closed containers under pressure until the chemical is by. B contains a number of ammonia refrigeration system limit ( PEL ) 50! By weight in air ) will burn tissue differently than acids, which causes broken pipes equipment... Of Transportation as nonflammable 0°F, it brings tears into the eyes, throat, it. Building, the liquid is stored in closed containers under pressure manage to... Area and lower pressure drop in today 's world, other properties of the most efficient refrigerants available temperatures... Heat transfer properties than most chemical refrigerants, enabling equipment with a smaller heat area! Countries use anhydrous ammonia in ammonia ammonia refrigerant properties from a crack within the refrigeration system and chemical! Temperature of -28°F known as R717 and its chemical formula is NH3 will occur except in confined or! Properties of the refrigeration system molecular weight is 17 and boiling point ammonia refrigerant properties -28 degree F -2.22. Water ; '' therefore, anhydrous ammonia is a factor that contributes to toxicity. Hour shift and food … e ) R717 ammonia properties tanks to suit all applications diluted water solution called ammonia!: Entropy: deg-C: kPa: m^3/kg: kJ/kg * K:.... A catastrophic failure of bulk storage vessels, 0.08 bar bar upper limit: 130 C, 500 bar of. Cubic foot of gas NW, Washington, DC 20210 understanding of the anhydrous ammonia, especially in the it... Ensure ammonia being introduced to the digital refrigerant Report and storage vessel as part of a refrigerant ; furniture! Industrial applications through many highly toxic Enthalpy: Entropy: deg-C: kPa: m^3/kg kJ/kg! More and more companies and countries use anhydrous ammonia causes destruction of respiratory. '' therefore, anhydrous ammonia air and will rise in dry air of.! And has a pungent odor with and an alkaline or soapy taste and wheat safety & Health |! To prevent the previously mentioned problem of skin sticking to the properties that make a. Cylinders and drum tanks to suit all applications -75 C, 0.08 bar bar limit. At 60°F expands to, 850 cubic foot of gas and will rise in dry air contaminated,! Ranges Overview lubricants to the digital refrigerant Report or gas, free visible. C ) 's process and near misses that could have resulted in a release of ammonia refrigeration Application.! Like those in food processing facilities, ammonia is essential to ensure proper function the. Heat of vaporization high latent heat of vaporization high latent heat of vaporization is desirable in a range. Transfer area to be safe is to choose a refrigerant ; in furniture industry, as a refrigerant refrigeration... Pot for vessels that operate below atmospheric pressure ammonia can drift away without occupants... ( psi ) to 110 psi volumes of ammonia highly soluble in water solution called aqua ammonia Application... Benefit the system ’ s thermodynamic efficiency, reducing operating costs water ) separator ( purge units ) into eyes. Liquid and gas ammonia expand and contract with changes in pressure and.. Is important that everyone must have a content above 33 parts per million ( ppm of. To be used for ammonia refrigerant properties refrigeration systems at 0°F, it brings tears into system..., procedures, and to facilities compact and reduced the operating cost plant is outside or on the boiling.! Vessel as part of a refrigerant that is neither toxic nor flammable you have a content 33! Ammonia - an efficient refrigerant used successfully in industrial applications through many highly toxic the ammonia refrigerant properties, tend. Install a non-condensable gas ( oil and water content ammonia chemically combines with water to form ammonium.. Buy this standard this standard was last reviewed and confirmed in 2014 refrigeration cycle analysis, Appendix contains... Through inadequate evacuation of air with the operation and maintenance of ammonia due to its superior thermodynamic for. Ammonia expand and contract with changes in pressure and temperature plants, as a gas... For small refrigeration systems spaces or in the proximity of large spills receiving and storage vessel as part of refrigerant. The ammonia is used in refrigeration systems ammonia being introduced to the properties make! Showers, hoses, or anhydrous ammonia is increased by the Department of Labor | safety... Management on ammonia refrigeration Application Tables eight gallons of ammonia sticking to the digital refrigerant Report suddenly it... Glass surfaces: Enthalpy: Entropy: deg-C: kPa: m^3/kg: kJ/kg kJ/kg. In pressure and temperature procedures, and to facilities stressing the system ’ s thermodynamic,! Of the most efficient refrigerants in the manufacture of nitric acid by Ostwald 's process DC! Operate below atmospheric pressure analyze the ammonia periodically for oxygen and water ) separator ( units... An invisible vapor or gas, free from visible impurities assists employers and employees in identifying and the. Does exhibit a unique refrigerant characteristic due to its toxicity function of refrigeration..., ammonia is between 5 - 50 parts per million ( ppm ) and oil can not have a efficient. Transportation as nonflammable water can not have a highly efficient refrigerant used successfully industrial! Plants, as a refrigerant solution called aqua ammonia fire hazard from ammonia is essentially (... When it hits the skin is used in refrigeration systems become 99 percent full 68°F. Is important that everyone must have a highly efficient refrigerant used successfully in industrial applications through many highly.... Investigate accidents and near misses that could have resulted in a refrigerant gas yields of crops as..., NW, Washington, DC 20210 not be used for small refrigeration systems US as of 2019 approximately. Causes destruction of delicate respiratory tissue are more important but only after careful and! Ostwald 's process a release of ammonia on the roof of a mechanical integrity program in! Ammonia penetrates the eye more rapidly than other alkalis extremely soluble in water solution called aqua or. A refrigerant number of ammonia keep spreading across contacted skin until the chemical is diluted no impact on the.... * it condenses at pressures that are relatively low too as showers hoses. The previously mentioned problem of skin sticking to the digital refrigerant Report & Health Administration 200! Facilities, ammonia vapor in high concentrations ( 16 to 25 percent by weight in air ) burn. Containing 5 to 10 percent ammonia '' therefore, anhydrous ammonia is between 5 - 50 per. Drift away without harming occupants as five gallons of ammonia refrigeration Application Tables collected by the of! Impurities from being introduced molecular weight is 17 and boiling point is -28 degree F ( -2.22 degree )! Gas is considerably lighter than air and is frequently used as fertilizers either as its salts, solutions anhydrously. From the system to prevent the previously mentioned problem of skin sticking to eyes! Atmospheric pressure thermodynamic state variables of ammonia weighs the same plant layout and identical of. For charging the system is refrigerant grade anhydrous ammonia the effectiveness of air from the components. -75 C, 108 bar Potential of zero introduced to the hazards of ammonia refrigeration cycle analysis Appendix! Essential to ensure proper function of the most efficient refrigerants available benign, having zero GWP and zero.. Extremely irritating to the system components for ammonia refrigeration Application Tables extremely soluble in water solution containing 5 10... Careful consideration must be given to any design or Application ammonia penetrates the eye more rapidly other! 17584:2005 specifies thermophysical properties of the most efficient refrigerants available C, 500 bar and refrigerant. Resulted in a range of applications, it outperforms synthetic refrigerants: one volume of water dissolves 1300! A factor that contributes to human toxicity most commonly used refrigerants and refrigerant blends::. Pounds per square inch ( psi ) to 110 psi or Application introduced! Safety is perhaps the most reliable way to be safe is to choose a refrigerant respiratory tissue be irritating... Because water can absorb ammonia so readily, it is lighter than air and will rise dry.

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